Building on the recently published volume “Germany and ‘the West’: The History of a Modern Concept” (2015), this workshop sought to explore the transnational discourse on ‘the West’ from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century (1860–1940). While the first part of the workshop, held at the Institut für Zeitgeschichte in Munich, focused on Germany, Britain, France, Russia and the US, the second part, held at the University of St Andrews, shifted the geographical focus to Japan, Korea, China and the Ottoman Empire. The workshop sought to answer a variety of questions: When, where, and why did ‘the West’ become a central point of reference in intellectual and political discourse? Why did people begin to talk about the West in a socio-political and often civilisational sense? Did the concept of the West, as Christopher GoGwilt has argued, eclipse the concept of Europe around the turn of the century, or did it displace the notion of ‘whiteness’, as Alastair Bonnett suggests? What influence did racism, social Darwinism and imperialism have on conceptualisations of the West? How did different spatial identities relate to each other: national, European / Asian / Islamic, Western / non-Western, and civilisational? Did countries typically seen as paradigmatic of ‘the West’ today consider themselves part of such an imagined community at the time? In what ways were conceptions of the West deployed to shape national identities in non-Western regions that had become increasingly incorporated into the communicative networks of Europe and America?
Coming from Sciences Po, Jordan Girardin joined St Andrews in 2012 for an MLitt in
Modern History (including a good dash of transnational history exposure – since 2015 the ITHS offers a free-standing postgraduate Master in Transnational History) and went on to stay for a PhD. He has recently, in just under three years, submitted his thesis entitled Travel in the Alps: the construction of a transnational space through digital and mental mapping (1750 – 1830). So, let us ask a few questions – and of course, warm congratulations on this great leap forward.
- How did your project on the Alps around 1800 evolve and develop?
I started my PhD in 2013 and my main objective back then was to show how the Alps became a transnational space between the 1750s and 1830s. I was convinced that I would find enough sources to state that the Alps went from being a huge obstacle to a very interconnected space. The reality was of course not so clear, and more importantly I realised that the terms I used applied to the twenty-first century but were not always so adequate for the period I studied. It was very hard to argue that local Alpine populations saw themselves as ‘transnational actors’ interacting with different valleys across political borders, even though their action could be described as such. However, I was still fascinated by the creation of a consistent Alpine space across national territories and therefore decided to focus on travellers’ perception of that region. As they were not familiar with the Alps, their interpretation of space certainly was going to be more subjective – even ‘wrong’ or exaggerated at times – and therefore allowed me to focus on mental mapping and representations of space. Travel became the main aspect of my topic in the end and this is something I wish to continue doing in my future research!
- What are the major trends and arguments of your work?
My thesis is an investigation of how the Alps rose as a clear concept in the minds of European elites from the 1750s to the 1830s. Up until the 1750s, the term ‘alps’
was hardly capitalised and mostly referred to the peaks themselves. The works of the Enlightenment and the growing number of travellers made the Alps more popular and more clearly defined in travel literature. My thesis attempts to break down that process between the facts – travel itineraries changing, scientific and socio-economic networks evolving – and their impact on mental representations of that space, using travel accounts, political discourse, and maps. My final chapter explained how the Alps even became a myth, a mountainous space par excellence. It addresses that not all the Alps were seen as quintessentially Alpine in the eyes of travellers: instead, the north-western region of the Alps (around Lake Geneva) featured all elements that eventually made up the Alpine myth and their reputation then applied on behalf of the entire Alpine space. The end of the period I studied (around the 1830s) sees the end of that transition: at that point, all conditions made it possible for the Alps to become a cultural object clearly defined in public representations, and for tourism to genuinely flourish in the shape of a proper economic market.
- What did you learn about the practice of transnational and / or spatial history?
I very much looked forward to apply transnational/spatial theories and practices in my PhD, after having chosen transnational history as my main specialisation at MLitt level. Over these three years I learned how to moderately use these theories and their terminology. Indeed, there is always a risk to over-conceptualise a rather empirical example; my first drafts did so, and at times I ended up losing track of my own narrative. Transnational history is a subtler mix of key concepts and terms (space, networks, hubs, interactions) in order to better serve a concrete example (through everyday life history, small scale analysis, or prosopographical approaches for instance). I believe my topic allowed me to find the right balance; through it I realised that spatial approaches can enhance anyone’s research and open doors to new research perspectives. Over the course of this PhD I spent some time building a database of travellers and trying to render their itineraries through digital mapping: this practice – which I believe is part of spatial and transnational history – also allowed me to find out results that words and concepts simply could not materialise. I am convinced transnational/spatial history still has a lot of potential and I look forward to exploring it even more in my future research.
- Having finished a PhD thesis in three years, what secret would you share with other PhDs?
It may sound quite paradoxical, but I would say ‘keep busy!’. Having more projects to look forward to will force you to be organised, to structure your day, and to get your PhD work done once you have properly allocated some time for it. My least productive moments happened when my PhD was my only daily task. Once I started teaching, presenting conference papers, taking up small internships or taking part in the life of the School and Institute, I became better at planning my work and getting it done. Leave some free time for yourself, keep healthy, keep moving, and your thesis will become a pleasant part of your daily life. Although life can sometimes get in the way, I would also recommend that you establish early on an approximate date of submission, and try to stick to it. The run-up to submission may be exciting, but do not forget that it is not over until you have actually submitted it: I spent a few weeks believing I was done, but my Word document was sitting comfortably on my hard drive. If you and your supervisor have established that your thesis can be submitted, then do everything to actually submit it: the moment you bring your copies to Registry is the real finish line, and it will feel amazing!
Afterwords of “Thanks”: And lastly, on behalf of the ITSH, we would like to thank the University of St Andrews for generously funding Jordan’s work with a 600th Anniversary PhD Scholarship. We would also like to thank the Fritz Thyssen Foundation and the Forschungszentrum Gotha as well as our GRAINES friends and colleagues in Basel for hosting Jordan for a semester (a bit closer to the Alpine space than St Andrews). Thank you everyone.
This term Sophie Drescher is joining us at the ITSH. Sophie is a graduate from Tübingen University where she worked on female travellers and modes of travel writing as part of her final year’s master thesis. Intrigued by the ITHS agenda of bringing transnational history in discussion with spatial history, Sophie decided to join the team. A warm welcome to you, Sophie!
The project in a nutshell:
What do we really know about travelling women, their roles, and the social spaces they occupied around 1800? This study traces European women travellers’ social networks on their journeys through Europe and beyond during the decades around 1800.
The project will examine how women’s travel was planned and how itineraries developed along social and geographical lines, thereby creating transnational European networks. The project, however, is not designed exclusively as a gender-studies project that focuses on solely female authors. It aims to highlight connectivity of women travellers in relation to their male counterparts, as well as in connection to other female travellers and their networks.
This study is underpinned by the hypothesis that political and cultural developments in Europe around 1800 altered established travel routes and opened up new spaces across Europe, especially to the north and east, for travellers to explore. It is key to link the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as this time frame, with its political upheavals and cultural turmoil, meant travellers were caught in a rapidly changing social world. Research has neglected the impact of this crucial time period on travellers’ experiences of social and geographical space, especially with reference to women’s negotiations of ‘space’ and ‘sphere’ in changing European societies.
The project will provide an enhanced understanding of how women travelled, how travelling changed between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It will lead to a more nuanced understanding of planning processes, the use of letters of recommendation, the significance of family members and acquaintances, and the influence of the individual’s social network on the individual’s itinerary. By including travel narratives from more than one European region and covering more than one travel destination the study’s findings will offer a broad panorama of European women’s travel activities and be of interest to a broader, European, audience beyond strictly national historiography.
Read more on Sophie’s project.
The rationale behind and the structure of the event entitled “Betwixt and between? Greek and Spanish migrants settled in Scotland since the 1960s”, initiated by ITSH members Konrad Lawson and Nikolaos Papadogiannis and scheduled to take place in Edinburgh in late November 2016, was presented at the Annual Gathering of the Beltane Network.
More data linked with this public outreach activity that will take place in November will appear on this website in due time. It will be great to see some of those visiting our website there!
The first volume of the new book series Peripherien. Beiträge zur Europäischen Geschichte (eds. Christof Dejung, Johannes Feichtinger, Martin Lengwiler, Ulrike Lindner, Bernhard Struck, Jakob Vogel) has just come out. It is entitled: Ränder der Moderne. Neue Ansätze zur europäischen Geschichte (1860-1930), eds. Martin Lengwiler & Christof Dejung (Cologne Weimar Vienna: Böhlau, 2015).
The book series has grown out of our GRAINES network and the shared interest in European history in transnational perspective. European history, as we see it, needs to respond to and reflect on the recent trends in Global History. What we aim at is a series that combines monographs and edited volumes that highlight the polycentric and provicialised nature of Europe.
The first volume combines chapters that refer to transnational, postcolonial, and global history approaches, in oder to develop new perspective on European history. At the same time, the volume follows the idea to approach Europe from the margins, with an aim to flesh out similarities within Europe as well as conflicts beyond Europe.
PhD researchers from the European University Institute, Florence have taken the initiative – they kicked of a series of interviews with historians from different national and institutional backgrounds on European history with a comparative and transnational focus. The series “Research in Dialogue – Dialogue in Research” is published by geschichte.transnational and HSozKult.
The latest interview has been published with Bernhard Struck, former director of our ITSH. The conversation addresses questions of direction of the field, the relevance of scales between micro and macro history, the neglected spatial element of transnational history, as well as potential tensions between national funding and an increasingly transnationally-driven research environment – and the world more broadly. Read the full interview here.
The ITSH and the EUI cooperate at the level of PhD exchanges via an Erasmus exchange link. If you are interested in coming to St Andrews or going to Florence, get in touch.
On Monday, 16 November the Institute for Transnational & Spatial History will be hosting Professor Sebastian Conrad from the Free University of Berlin. As part of our Modern History Seminar Series, Professor Conrad will be speaking on “The Revolution of Time in the Nineteenth Century: Global Perspectives”
Time & Venue: 5.15pm, New Seminar Room, St John’s House, South Street. The talk is open to the public.
At 2pm there will be an informal seminar with Professor Conrad with postgraduate students (at invitation only).
Sebastian Conrad is professor in Global History at the Free University of Berlin since 2010, following a stint at the European University Institute in Florence. Originally his background is in Japanese and Western European history, which is reflected in his first monograph “In Quest for the Lost Nation” (2010), a comparison of German and Japanese historiographical traditions on the period of the
World Wars, the Third Reich and the Japanese Empire respectively.
His “Globalisation and the Nation” (2014) analyses the many and complex cross-border factors and actors, including Chinese or Polish migrations, that have shaped discourses of the nation and the concept of German labour in the Wilhelmine Empire.
Furthermore, he has published widely on colonialism and global history, including his “German Colonialism. A Short History” (2012). An introduction to global history is in preparation and will be out in early 2016.
We would like to warmly welcome Adam Dunn as a new (and partly old) PhD student at the ITSH. Adam took his undergraduate degree at the University of York in History, graduating in 2011 before he started his masters in early modern history at the University of St Andrews. After finishing his MLitt at St Andrews he took two gap years where he worked in various places including a law firm and the IT department of a paper mill.
In September 2015, Adam returned to St Andrews starting a research project under the working title “From words to numbers and maps. Transfers, networks and the transformations of statistical thinking in Britain, France and the German lands, c. 1780s-1840s”.
Here is Adam: “I returned to St Andrews to peruse my PhD with Dr. Bernhard Struck at the ITSH. I returned for a number of reasons, not least the fantastic academic atmosphere in St Andrews, but also because of the burgeoning new Institute for Transnational & Spatial History. I am currently half way through my first term as a PhD and am auditing an MLitt module on core skills for transnational history, including historical mapping and database creation.” – A steep and hopefully fruitful learning curve.
Statistics are a fascinating topic, primarily studied and researched within the units that gave birth to modern statistics: the (nation) state. The project seeks to trace actors and networks spun by amateur statisticians – via travel, correspondence, journals – during the decades around 1800. There is more on the project under PhDs.
Welcome Adam – enjoy reading your statistics!
The winter ahead – the next summer (school) in mind. We are pleased to announce the theme of our 4th GRAINES summer school: Dividing the World? Imperial Formations in Continental and Maritime Empires from the seventeenth to the twenty-first century.
Following our summer schools in Menton (France), Vienna, St Andrews, GRAINES2016 will be hosted by our colleagues Ulrike Lindner and Dörte Lerp from the University of Cologne.
Information will be announced under grainesnetwork.com. You can follow us under the twitter hashtag #Graines2016. More to come soon.
Emma Hunter is a lecturer in Global History at Edinburgh University. Her research focus is on African history in relation to political, intellectual and cultural history as well as the history of African print cultures. Her monograph “Political Thought and the Public Sphere in Tanzania: Freedom, Democracy and Citizenship in the Era of Decolonisation” was published with CUP in 2015. Congratulations, Emma!
Time & Venue: Monday 19 October 2015, New Seminar Room, School of History, University of St Andrews, 5.15pm.
More on the Modern History Research Seminar series – please see under Modern History Seminar .